Tissue Sources of MSC’s
The stem cells reside within the cells of these tissues and require a special enzymatic procedure to release them from within the cells.
Bone marrow, adipose (fat), dermis (skin), synovial fluid (joint fluid), periosteum (covering around the bone that houses the nerves and blood vessels for the bone), umbilical cord blood, placenta, and amniotic fluid.
Stem cells are harvested from the umbilical cord of a full term newly born live healthy baby!!! Only 1 out of 10 donors qualify. Rigorous review of the family history prior to the birth of the baby. The cells are removed from their markers and DNA, they become "blank" cells.
Capacity of MSC’s
The primary trophic property of MSC’s is the secretion of growth factors and other cytokines to induce cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The trophic effects extend beyond cell proliferation to the reduction of scar tissue formation.
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Properties of MSC’s:
In muscular trauma, inflammatory conditions at the site of injury impede the natural repair processes from taking place. MSC’s assist via paracrine mechanisms and modulate the regenerative environment via anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms.
In response to inflammatory molecules such as IL-1, 2, and 12, TNF-alpha and interferon gamma (that is initiated by T-1 helper cells).
MSC’s secrete an array of growth factors and anti-inflammatory proteins with complex feedback mechanisms. The key immunomodulatory cytokines include PGE-2, tissue growth factor-beta 1, hepatocyte growth factor, nitrous oxide, IL-4, 6, 10 and many more (secreted by T-2 helper cells).
MSC’s prevent proliferation and function of many inflammatory immune cells, including T cells, and NK cells.
A characteristic of chronically inflamed environments is a persistent imbalance in the types of T cells.
MSC’s indirectly promote the transition of T-1 helper cells (the pro-inflammatory cells) to T-2 helper cells (anti-inflammatory cells) by reducing interferon gamma and increasing IL-4, and 10.
The restored T-1/T-2 balance (immunomodulation) has been shown to improve tissue regeneration, alleviate symptoms of autoimmune diseases and have an anti-diabetic effect.
To make it simple. An MSC induced reduction in interferon gamma and IL-4 (the pro-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and tissue growth inhibition factors), promotes a shift to the anti-inflammatory, pro-remodeling, and tissue healing type, an effect that is required for skeletal, muscular and neural healing and regeneration.
Apoptosis: Literally means cellular suicide. Due to environmental conditions.
An important property of MSC’s is the ability to rescue apoptotic cells induced by traumatic exposures to hypoxia, chemicals/acidity, mechanical damage, or radiation. MSC’s have proved to reverse apoptosis in cells. The mechanism is not fully understood.
The native immune defense against microbial infections is caused by multiple polypeptides. LL37 is the most commonly secreted polypeptide and has been shown to be a potentially effective therapeutic agent against acute and systemic infections. It has also been shown to be effective against protozoan parasites.